carbon monoxide [CO]

In by Mark Goodman

A colorless, odorless, highly poisonous gas formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
carbon monoxide (noun)
a colorless odorless very toxic gas CO that is formed as a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon or a carbon compound
carbon monoxide (Wikipedia)
Carbon monoxide
Ball-and-stick model of carbon monoxide
Spacefill model of carbon monoxide
model of carbon monoxide
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Carbon monoxide
Other names
Carbon monooxide
Carbonous oxide
Carbon(II) oxide
Carbonyl
Flue gas
Monoxide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3587264
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.118
EC Number 211-128-3
421
KEGG
MeSH Carbon+monoxide
RTECS number FG3500000
UNII
UN number 1016
Properties
CO
Molar mass 28.010 g/mol
Appearance colorless gas
Odor odorless
Density 789 kg/m3, liquid
1.250 kg/m3 at 0 °C, 1 atm
1.145 kg/m3 at 25 °C, 1 atm
Melting point −205.02 °C (−337.04 °F; 68.13 K)
Boiling point −191.5 °C (−312.7 °F; 81.6 K)
27.6 mg/L (25 °C)
Solubility soluble in chloroform, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethanol, ammonium hydroxide, benzene
1.04 atm·m3/mol
−9.8·10−6 cm3/mol
1.0003364
0.122 D
Thermochemistry
29.1 J/(K·mol)
197.7 J/(mol·K)
−110.5 kJ/mol
−283.4 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet See: data page
ICSC 0023
Highly Flammable F Very Toxic T+
R-phrases (outdated) R61 R12 R26 R48/23
S-phrases (outdated) S53 S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g., propaneHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
4
3
0
Flash point −191 °C (−311.8 °F; 82.1 K)
609 °C (1,128 °F; 882 K)
Explosive limits 12.5–74.2%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
8636 ppm (rat, 15 min)
5207 ppm (rat, 30 min)
1784 ppm (rat, 4 h)
2414 ppm (mouse, 4 h)
5647 ppm (guinea pig, 4 h)
4000 ppm (human, 30 min)
5000 ppm (human, 5 min)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 50 ppm (55 mg/m3)
REL (Recommended)
TWA 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) C 200 ppm (229 mg/m3)
IDLH (Immediate danger)
1200 ppm
Related compounds
Related carbon oxides
Carbon dioxide
Carbon suboxide
Oxocarbons
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals (both invertebrate and vertebrate, including humans) when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone.

Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen. In coordination complexes the carbon monoxide ligand is called carbonyl.

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